Name of the organization
East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)
ETIM was founded in late 1990s, by Hasan Mahsum and
Abudukadir Yapuquan. However historically its links can
be traced back to 1940s when
Islamic Party of Turkistan
or Turkistan Islamic Movement was founded by Abdul Azeez
Makhdoom/Mahsum, Abdul Hakeem and Abdul Hameed. Hasan
Mahsum went to several Islamic countries like Saudi
Arabia, Turkey, and Pakistan but failed to get any
support from them. But he was offered the good offices
of Al-Qaeda and Afghan Taliban, so he founded ETIM in
1997 with support from Al-Qaeda’ during Taliban regime
in Afghanistan. In 1998 he shifted the headquarters of
ETIM to Afghanistan.
Founder: Hasan Mahsum
Image of Hasan Mehsum
leader and founder of ETIM.
Hasan Mahsum was a leader and
founder of ETIM. He was involved in advocating the use
of Jihad against Chinese authorities and spreading
hatred against them. He was unable to mobilize
and gain a popular support from them. He was arrested in
China. After being released he went to Afghanistan and
several other Muslim countries (Pakistan, Saudi Arabia,
turkey and Afghanistan) to arrange political/financial
support in organizing ETIM.
He was killed by Pakistan forces
in a counter terrorism operation in October 2003.
A key member of
East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM),
Abudukadir Yapuquan, has been organizing and
implementing murders and robberies resulting in loss of
lives of innocent people.
Commander: Abdul Haq
In October 2003, after death of the previous leader,
Abdul Haq, aka Maimaitiming Maimaiti, is the leader and
commander of East Turkistan Islamic Movement.
He has also been a member of Al-Qaeda Shura Council.
In 2009, Abdul Haq was designated
as a global terrorist by U.S. Treasury Department
He was killed on February 2010 in a raid by Pakistan
army at Mir Ali, North Waziristan.
Abdul Shakoor Turkistani
After the death of Abdul Haq, Abdul Shakoor Turkistani
became Amir of East Turkistan Islamic
He died in a US’ drone strike in North Waziristan area
The current leader of ETIM is Abdullah Mansour.
School of thought
Chinese authorities claim that the
members of ETIM have been indoctrinated in Pakistani
It shows the links of these militants with Pakistani
school of thought, who believes that a Muslim should
protect the interests of other Muslims in foreign
countries and wage jihad to help them. They say that
Muslims should be loyal to their religion first and then
follow the states in which they are living. It is widely
practiced in Pakistan.
Structure of the organization.
No such information is available.
ETIM has been designated as a
terrorist group on September 3, 2002 by US under
13224 and US Terrorists Exclusion List.
It has been listed as a terrorist
organization by government of Pakistan on March 15,
Recruitment tools & demographics
The organization recruits
likeminded Uyghur from china and Uyghur Diaspora in
It has been reported that Abdul Haq is engaged in
recruiting new members for the organization.
No specific information is available about the tools
they use for recruiting the militants.
During its formative phase
Al-Qaeda and afghan Taliban were funding them.
Abdul Haq has been engaged in raising funds and purchase
explosive materials for terrorist activities.
In the current scenario no such information is available
about their financial resources.
ETIM is a separatist, terrorist
organization founded by ethnic Uyghur to separate the
Xinjiang region from china. They believe in Jihad in
fulfilling their objective. It is a fundamentalist
organization having links with other terrorists’
organizations like Al-Qaeda and Islamic Movement of
Areas of Operation
Their areas of operation include
the North Waziristan agency of Pakistan, Afghanistan,
central Asia and China.
Eastern Turkmenistan Islamic Party
Who they are
ETIM is a separatist, fundamentalist, terrorist organization.
They are fighting against the Chinese authorities for the
independence of Xinjiang autonomous region of china which is a
predominantly ethnic Uyghur territory. They are Muslims and want
their own separate state. Due to their links with other
terrorist organization like
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
(IMU), AL-Qaeda etc they are also conducting terrorist attacks
in other parts of the world. Their bases are in the North
Waziristan Agency of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The ethnic Uyghur in the Xinjiang autonomous region of china are
demanding independence from china since 1949. There have been
reports of Uyghur uprising and its skirmishes with Chinese
authorities from early 1990s. In 1996 china began to tighten its
crack down on Islamists and separatists elements in Xinjiang.
The arrests of notables and religious scholar further
exacerbated the situation in the region and riots broke out.
Among the arrested notables was Hasan Mehsum who founded the
ETIM later. After his release he went to Saudi Arabia,
Afghanistan, Pakistan and turkey in order to seek support for
organizing a militant organization against china. He was failed
to get any kind of support from these countries as well as the
Uyghur Diaspora in other countries also did not responded to his
call. He went to Afghanistan where he met Osama bin Laden and
Afghan Taliban, they insured him their support and in 1997-98
ETIM was founded during Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Mehsum
shifted it’s headquarter to Kabul. After 9/11 they ran into
Pakistani territory and started operating from Waziristan area
of Pakistan. Over the period of time many of its militants have
been killed in counter terrorism operation in Pakistan and
Afghanistan by Pakistani security forces and ISAF.
Chinese authorities’ accuses ETIM of hundreds of attacks in
china and outside. China is blaming ETIM for bombing of buses,
markets, civilians, and government institutions as well as
assassinating Muslim leaders and local officials etc. ETIM are
accused of assassinating Nighmet Bosakof the head of Uyghur
youth Alliance in Kyrgyzstan in 2000, the bombing of Chinese
embassy in turkey in the late 1990.
In 2002 ETIM workers were deported from Kyrgyzstan to china in
suspicion of planning to attack the US embassy there. During
2008 Olympics they were creating panics through video massages
and threatening the Chinese. They claimed responsibility for two
bus bombs in Kunming, Yunnan province. During 2011 they targeted
the government officials in Xinjiang and a series of bomb blasts
and knife attacks killed more than a dozen people and injured up
to fifty in Kashgar. Tiananmen Square car bomb attack in 2013
was the first time china had directly blamed the ETIM for
terrorist attack and it was considered as the most pressing
security threat for china. The Uyghur activists denied their
involvement in the attack.
The organization massage is clear they want independence from
china and a separate state for Uyghur ethnic majority in
Xinjiang region of china.
The target audience for ETIM is ethnic Uyghur and Uyghur Diaspora
in central Asian countries.
Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP)
Islamic party of Turkistan
Hizbul Islam Li-Turkistan (Islamic Party of Turkistan or
Turkistan Islamic Movement) came to the surface in Xinjiang in
1940, it carried out a number of successful separatists uprising
from the 1940s through 1952. In the Nationalist Chinese
parliament of China Isa Yusuf was the representative of East
Turkistan. He was trying to defend the region and its people
from Soviets as well as Chinese domination. In 1947 He became
the secretary general of the second East Turkistan republic. He
became the Secretary General of the second East Turkistan
Republic, representing his people in their freedom. Isa Yusuf
was successful in escaping the Chinese crack down on leaders of
East Turkistan. In 1949 he managed to go to India by foot with
his family and 2000 other followers.
Uyghur or Uyghur also pronounced as WEE-guhrs, have a population
around 10 million in china also a large number of its Diaspora
can also be found in the neighboring central Asian republics, in
china they are mostly found in Xinjiang, which is now the
autonomous region of china. Ethnically they are Turkic and
follow Sufi Islam. Xinjiang region became a province in 1884.
The Uyghur achieved their statehood two times in history after
the demise of Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)—once from 1931 to 1934,
and again from 1944 to 1949. After the communists takeover of
china they annexed the region into their sphere of influence.
They named Xinxiang as the autonomous region of china, many of
the Chinese objected to this decision of forced assimilation.
The Uyghur lack unity in their say, as some of them prefers
Chinese control other went their separate state while some want
changes in the system only. There are many Uyghur organizations
who are working for separation from china but all of them are
not violent. The constant tension between the Han Chinese and
the Uyghur often leads to riots and violence among these ethnic
were one of the militant groups composed of religious leaders
and their students from madrassas of Afghan civil War after
1989, who established Islamic republic of Afghanistan in 1994 –
96 it put an end to the lengthy civil war between different
factions of Afghanistan. Taliban are Led by Mullah Omar. Afghan
Taliban Promotes Islam as a moral, stable and orderly
alternative to civil war, ethnic divisions, and warring tribal
chiefs. They followed strict, literal, and conservative
interpretations of Islam and Sunni Islamic public standards,
including the implementation of hudud punishments. They are
influenced primarily by Wahhabi teachers and Pashtun tribal
traditions. The regime was only recognized by Pakistan, Saudi
Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The international community
especially human rights organizations were very critical of the
laws and the governance system in Afghanistan. The same Afghan
Taliban provided the safe havens to Al-Qaeda and its chief Osama
bin Laden to run training camps for international terrorism.
Qaeda is an international terrorist network founded by Osama Bin
Laden in 1988. Al Qaeda helped in recruiting, financing and
training thousands of fighters from different parts of the world
to be part of an Afghan resistance to defeat the Soviet Union.
Al Qaeda’s goal is to establish Islamic Caliphate throughout the
world by working with Islamic extremist groups to overthrow
regimes they consider to be non Islamic. Al Qaeda’s activities
include bombing, assassination, hijacking, kidnapping and
suicide attacks. Al Qaeda is responsible for the attacks on the
US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in
1998 and also the hijacking attacks on the World Trade Center
and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001.
Islamic movement of Afghanistan
is a terrorist organization, operating in Pakistan, Afghanistan
and Central Asia. They are famous for drug trafficking in
Central Asia and also responsible for an assassination attempt
on Uzbek President Karimov in 1999. Its bases are in the
Waziristan region of Pakistan, in Afghanistan and Central Asian
states. The group has been involved in terrorist attacks in
Pakistan. They have targeted some high value targets in
Pakistan. Attacks included airport bombings in Peshawar and
Karachi in 2012 and 2014. The IMU finances terrorist activities
from drug trafficking and also receives donations from Al Qaeda.
Deobandi’s are a significant group of Muslims present in the sub
continent who adhere to the Sunni sect and follow the ideology
of Imam Abu Hanifa. The School of thought is named after the
University of Deoband Dar ul Aloom in India. They believe in
safeguarding the teachings of Islam, while spreading the
religion through preaching.
Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP)
Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP) was formed in 2006 by
Uighurs that settled in Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1990. It is
a prominent group operating under the umbrella of East Turkestan
Islamic Movement (ETIM). The objectives of East Turkestan
Islamic Movement (ETIM) and Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP)
are Islamist and Nationalist. Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP) is
active on internet and promote jihad by
Uighurs in Xinjiang through video messages.